Jumat, 21 Januari 2011

Mi-24 Hind

     Development of aviation technology closely mirrors the military and political situation worldwide. For example, cost curve to picture aircraft and helicopters production in the USA features clear-cut peaks: 1954-1957, 1966-1968 and 1985-1986. These refer to wars in Korea, Vietnam and the so-called Reagonomics era (Afghanistan). At every such peak unique specimens of air technology emerged.
The helicopters included the Sikorsky S-55 in Korea, Bell UH-1 Irokez and Bell AH-1 Cobra in Vietnam; AH-64 Apache - Reagonomics. Our helicopter-building industry reacted adequately and produced Mi-4, Mi-8, Mi-24 and Mi-28 helicopters respectively. Today we will tell our readers about Mi-24 gunship helicopter with transport capability.
     Such a unique helicopter 'flying infantry combat vehicle' was the brainchild of M.L.Mil, helicopters general designer.
     His idea implied the development of a helicopter similar to an American Cobra helicopter, capable of carrying a powerful armament systems and boasting at the same time high flying performance, combat survivability and a capacity to accommodate eight troops (full strength squad) with personal weapons and extra ammunition owing to a decrease in its combat load.
     As the gestation period for the new types of armament and observation-sighting devices took longer than the helicopter's development, M.L.Mil decided to fit the first version of the Mi-24 with armaments and sights currently used at that time. Such a new armament system was first tried on the Mi-4 (K-4V) helicopter. The rapid tempo of the Mi-24 development can be attributed to partial or complete unification of the most complicated and vital units, which were previously intended for Mi-8 and Mi-14 helicopters. These units comprised a hub and blades of the main rotor, swash plate, tail rotor, main gear box, rotor drive system and finally the TV3-117 engine. It took one year only to pass from the drawing board (August 1968) to the maiden flight of this helicopter.
         The development of new armament systems and devices was carried out simultaneously with the flying trials of the first helicopter prototype. This led to the development of a more roomy cockpit for the crew. This updated cockpit accommodated armament systems and sighting systems similar to those mounted on the first prototype. The first production version of the Mi-24 helicopter, the Mi-24A, became operational that way. This helicopter differed from the first prototype by a stub-wing anhedral of -12 deg. with pylons at wingtips for the Phalanga (Phalanx) antitank missiles. This was done to compensate for the lateral instability which appeared during flying trials of the prototype.

Basic Flying Performances of Mi-24 (Mi-24V, P, VP main versions)

Crew, men 2 (pilot and weapon operator)
Engines 2xTV-3-117VM
Engine maximum take-off power, hp 2x2,20
Overall dimensions,m:
- main rotor diameter
- tail rotor diamtere
- length: overall rotors turning
- height: overall, rotor turning

Take-off weight kg,:
- normal
- max.

Weight empty, kg: 8,620
Speed, km/h
- max. speed
- cruising speed

Hovering ceiling in ground effect, m:
- at international standard atmosphere (ISA)
- at international standard atmosphere (ISA) +10o

Zoom altitude, m 4,500
Range with max. internal fuel, 5% reserve, km 450
Transit range, km 1000
Transport-assault load:
- troops with individual weapons, men
- load inside compartment (cabin), kg
- load on pylons ,kg

     At least 200 Mi-24A helicopters were manufactured during the five years of their production. The operation of these helicopters, including combat missions, contributed greatly to their further development, updating and improved reliability. This also allowed training pilots and maintenance personnel both in our country and abroad.
     The operational experience of the Mi-24A revealed in particular the poor external view from the pilot's cockpit. This drawback forced a radical change in the helicopter nose to accommodate the new weapon systems and sights. In the final version, the pilot and weapon operator were seated in tandem, stepped cockpits under individual canopies. The unfixed mount with the YaKB-12.7 (Yakushev-Borzov) machine gun, boasted a high rate of fire (4,000-4,500 r.p.m) and was remotely controlled via the KPS-53AV sighting station and housed in the exterior front part of the weapon operator's cockpit. The cartridge box previously housed in the pilot's cockpit was installed under the cockpit floor and handled from the outside. There was another problem to solve: it involved the provision of a broad view (±60 deg. in azimuth) for the Raduga observation device used by the weapon operator, which would not impair visibility by structural members and similar view for the command radio link antenna. They were installed on both sides of the fuselage, below the outline of the machine-gun mount. This marked the final general appearance of the crew cockpit and of Mi-24D and Mi-24V as a whole. These helicopters jointly underwent state trials and were launched into series production.
     As mentioned earlier, the D version differed from the A version owing to the Phalanga-P antitank missile system incorporating Raduga-F semiautomatic guiding system, which increased the accuracy of antitank missiles two times. In addition, the gyrostabilizing guidance device provided for helicopter's maneuverability within ±60 degrees in yaw during missile guidance, thereby increasing its effectiveness. The provision of a remotely controlled machine gun USPU-24 for the equipment of the Mi-24D ensured automatic introduction of the corrections into firing. The system also comprised an analogue computer compatible with the airborne system of modulating transducers. The unguided armament of the Mi-24D helicopter was not changed, as was the case with the Mi-24A helicopter.
     Adoption of the final version of the helicopter Mi-24V was delayed by the development of a new generation Shturm-V antitank missile system. It should be noted here that the Shturm-V system was reviewed as a helicopter version of the ground system Shturm-S. However, the helicopter version was the first to become operational. In addition to the Shturm-V system, the ASP-17V, an automatic pilot's sight was mounted on the Mi-24V. This sight was a modification of the sight developed for the Su-17 aircraft.
     Consequently, the main work on the army transport-combat helicopter came to an end and the Mi-24D and Mi-24V became operational in conformity with Government Decree dated March 1976.
     The Mi-24 helicopter remained for a long time the powerful and effective combat vehicle. As a reward of their efforts, the main developers, including Designer General M.N.Tischenko, were awarded Lenin prizes. Meanwhile a large group of designers, workers and customer's representatives were given government awards. However, work on the Mi-24 was still not over. A roomy compartment to accommodate troops predetermined further development of utility versions, including: ? Mi-24P helicopter intended for chemical and radiation reconnaissance. This helicopter underwent a baptism of fire when determining the scope of the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power station; ? Mi-24K reconnaissance artillery spotting helicopter intended for ground forces.
     However, most development work on the Mi-24 was geared to increase its combat and fire power.
1. Pilot's cockpit of Mi-24 helicopter. 2. NPPU-24 fixed mashine gun mount. 3. UPK-23-250 pod and Sturm antitank missile system.
     As mentioned earlier, small arms mounted on the Mi-24D and Mi-24V comprised the unfixed mount with the YaKB-12.7 machine gun boasting high rate of fire.
     To increase fire power, two versions of versatile helicopter pods were developed: each one contained either one YaKB-12.7 machine gun and two 7.62mm TKB-621 high rate fire machine guns or a 30mm rocket launcher nicknamed Plamya.
     Subsequently the Mi-24 carried UPK-23-250 universal gun pods fitted with a 23mm GSh-23 gun, developed by the A.S.Yakovlev Design Bureau and intended for aircraft.
     However, the military insisted on fitting the helicopter with a built-in 30mm gun armament. As the final layout at that time didn't provide for mounting on the Mi-24 a 30mm unfixed gun mount, it was decided to fit the vehicle with a GSh-30 (Gryazev-Shipunov) fixed gun mount.
     The Mi-24P, fitted with GSh-30K gun mounts with longer barrels, was tested in Afghanistan and was highly praised by flying crews. This fact was notable.
     It's worth telling more about it. Whatever one's personal opinion on this war, it's safe to say that our military contingent suffered militarily and climatically. In these circumstances the Mi-24 put up a good show as a reliable and formidable combat vehicle.
     The Mi-24VP was the last production version of the Mi-24 to differ from the Mi-24V by swapping the USPU-24 unfixed machine gun mount for the 23 mm GSh-23 unfixed gun mount.
     As well as updating the small arms, rocket armament fire power was also increased. The helicopter was fitted to fire a new generation of rockets S-8, S-13 and S-24, instead of 57mm unguided rockets (S-5).
Version Mi-24V Mi-24P Mi-24VP
Built-in gun armament:
- type of mount
- laying angles, deg.:
- type of weapon
- caliber, mm
- rate of fire, rds/min
- ammunition, pcs


+10; -40
± 60o
YaKB-12.7 machine gun


GSh-30K gun
300/2,000 -2,600


+10; -40
GSh-23L gun
Guided missile armament:
- guided missile
- guidance system
- caliber, mm
- range of fire, m
- armor-piercing capacity, mm
- allowance, pcs
Shturm-V antitank missile system
radio-signal, semiautomatic
Unguided rocket armament:
- unguided rocket
- caliber, mm
- allowance

up to 80


Other type of armament
- bombs, pcs
weight, kg
- (KMGU-2) pod
- helicopter universal pods with
machine gun or grenade launcher
- universal UPK-23-250 pod
with GSh-23 cannon

2 pods
2-4 pods

2 pods

2 pods
2-4 pods

2 pods

2 pods
2-4 pods

2 pods
     At present, the Mi-28 is also being unified. For example, the Mi-24V, P and VP helicopters underwent trials to use the new generation of guided missiles nicknamed Ataka, which represent a further development of the Shturm antitank missile system. The guided missiles intended for the Mi-28 boast more armor-piercing capability, compared to the Shturm antitank missile system, including firing against targets with explosive-reactive armor. They have longer range of fire and various warheads to engage air targets.
     The performance of the Mi-24 can be radically improved by using main and tail rotors of the Mi-28.
     Day/night observation-sight systems intended for the Mi-28 can be also used by the Mi-24.
     In short, the Mi-24 lives on. Far from all opportunities to improve its combat and flying performances have been exhausted.


Thirty years ago, the Mi-24 helicopter, developed in compliance with the ideas of General Designer Mikhail Mil, has taken off for the first time. Over these three decades the helicopter has gone through many flashpoints and the legendary Mi-24 has been designated the flying infantry combat vehicle not without reason. However, thirty years is a long life for a combat helicopter. Therefore, in early March the Mil Experimental Design Bureau demonstrated a fundamentally modernized derivative, designated the Mi-24VM (Mi-35M), of the Mi-24 helicopter that has made a perfect showing under complicated combat conditions. The conspicuous features of the modernization, offered by the Mil Design Bureau, consist in modular updating of the Mi-24. In this case, any module (unit) can be individually modernized in accordance with the customer's request and financial potentialities.
Installation of a new main rotor provided with blades made of glass fiber plastics, a hub furnished with elastolar bearings, and an X-shaped tail rotor developed for the Mi-28N helicopter, makes it possible to decrease the mass of the flying machine, increase its hovering ceiling and rate of climb, and improve its overall operating characteristics and invulnerability.
In modernizing the airframe, armament system and communications facilities, the Mil Design Bureau offers to install a shortened wing and nonretractable landing gear and retrofit the hydraulic system. In addition to this, the client may wish to replace a number of equipment components, as well as install new bomb racks, missile launchers, and radio set.
The primary emphasis has been placed on an increase of weapon effectiveness. The Ataka air-to-ground guided missiles (ammunition establishment has been increased up to 16 missiles) have been introduced into the helicopter's armament system. The missiles can also be used against air targets similar to the Igla-V guided missiles. The 12.7mm machine-gun mount has been replaced by a 23mm aircraft cannon. The most up-to-date BVK-24 computer and a laser range finder have been introduced into the heliborne equipment. A modernization program on this scale makes it possible to increase the accuracy against a single target 1.5 times, while increasing the kill zone 2 to 2.5 times when delivering cannon fire. The combat effectiveness of employing the guided missiles increases twofold on average.
The modernization will ensure the helicopter's round-the-clock combat readiness. The use of night-vision goggles with flight information displayed in the field of view, and equipping the helicopter with an optronic fire-control station comprising of thermal imaging and TV channels, control channel, and laser range finder, as well as display systems, enables the crew to detect and recognize targets at night and employ the heliborne weapons both by day and night.
It should be pointed out that this modernization program will prolong the service life of the Mi-24, designed thirty years ago, until the years of 2015 - 2020, and essentially increase the overhaul period of the helicopter and its accessories.
Much attention is given worldwide to the modernization of flying machines since it enables the developers to obtain their updated characteristics at minimum financial costs. At present, the Moscow Mil Helicopter Plant (a developer of the Mi-35) together with the Rostvertol PLC works on all-round modernization of the helicopter.
In the early March, the first qualification flight of the Mi-24VM helicopter (a baseline version of the export Mi-35M) has been made at the Mil Helicopter Plant's flight-test base near Moscow under the state test program. It is worthy of note that the Mi-35M's export version considerably differs from the Mi-24VM developed for the Russian Armed Forces.
Since 1978, the Rostvertol PLC has exported about 600 Mi-35 helicopters of various modifications to more than 25 countries. Today, about 1,000 helicopters, developed on the basis of the Mi-24, are in service with the Russian army aviation.
Modernization of the Mi-35 machine is highly topical taking into account the remaining service life margin and technical condition of helicopters being in service with foreign countries, Russia and the CIS, as well as numerous inquiries from potential customers of modernized versions of the Mi-35 and its current users.
A program involving the development of the Mi-35M, a full-scale mock-up of which was demonstrated for the first time at Le Bourget Air Show in 1995, is gradually being executed.
The main goals of modernization of the existing helicopters are the following:
- considerable prolongation of life cycle;
- improvement of performance characteristics;
- enhancement of combat effectiveness;
- provision for day-and-night combat employment;
- increase of maintainability.
These goals can be attained through the use of a number of modernization packages:
1. Prolongation of a calendar and estimated service life of the airframe, system units and equipment.
2. Decrease in empty weight of the helicopter and increase in the reliability and invulnerability of its systems to combat damage owing to retrofitting of its fuselage and mechanical systems.
3. Increase in the combat effectiveness of the armament system, which involves an introduction of the following weapons into armament suit:
- Ataka and Ataka-M antitank guided missiles of increased effectiveness;
- unguided aircraft rockets.
4. Ensuring of day-and-night employment of the helicopter by providing the crew with the night-vision goggles and adaptation of the cabin illumination, while providing the helicopter with a surveillance and fire-control station.
5. Modernization of the helicopter rotor system, increase of its aerodynamic effectiveness and decrease of its weight by using the main and tail rotors developed for the Mi-28 helicopter. This leads to a decrease of its weight by 300 kg and an increase of the main rotor effective thrust by 300 kgf.
6. The further increase in the combat effectiveness of the armament system and equipping the helicopter with the new communications facilities:
- introduction of the Igla-V air-to-air heat-homing missile system;
- replacement of obsolete analog computers by a heliborne unified BVK-24 computer system capable of solving air navigation problems;
- replacement of obsolete radio communications equipment.
7. Provision for day-and-night combat employment of all heliborne weapons via replacement of the Raduga-Sh day-vision guidance device by the gyro-stabilized surveillance and fire-control station. With due account for variations in customer requirements, the Rostvertol offers several modernization variants.
One of the most promising variants involves the modernization to be performed during the helicopter major repair. This variant covers the following four modernization packages:
1. Modernization of the airframe, including:
- installation of nonretractable landing gear that ensures saving in weight and increases the low-altitude flight safety and a crew protection degree in emergency landing;
- retrofitting of the wing to decrease its weight, installation of launching frames with an increased ammunition load, and an increase in technological effectiveness of loading the helicopter with ammunition.
2. Modernization of the armament system:
- provision for employment of S-13 rockets in the 130mm rocket pod (B-13L1);
- equipping the helicopter with the Shturm-VM (9K113M) guided missile system.
3. Modernization of the helicopter rotor system and dismantling of the secondary hydraulic system that leads to savings in weight, enhancement of airfield performance, and an increase in invulnerability of the helicopter to combat damage.
4. Equipping the helicopter with night vision systems:
- NVIS-compatible illumination of instrument equipment in the crew cabins and adaptation of lighting equipment for night vision goggles to ensure safe takeoff/landing at night and under limited-visibility conditions and flying of the helicopter at extremely low altitudes near the ground surface at night and under limited-visibility conditions at low flight speeds;
- installation of the surveillance and fire-control station furnished with infrared, TV and laser channels to ensure target detection and identification at long ranges at night; leading out of the helicopter onto a target and a combat run at night and under limited-visibility conditions; employment of unguided rockets at night and under limited-visibility conditions; performing search operations and ground surveillance at night and under limited-visibility conditions, as well as in the daytime under conditions of artificial or natural shadowing of objects.
All the aforementioned advantages and the best efficiency-to-cost ratio make us believe that modernized Mi-35 helicopters are sure to score a success on the international aircraft market. Rostvertol products are to be demonstrated at the IDET '99 International Fair in Brno (Czech Republic), Hall Z, Stand #70; and at the 43rd Paris Air Show (Le Bourget, France), Hall 5, Stand #d-1, Chalet 237, Row

Sukhoi Su-27

Su-27 - answer of Russia to creation in USA of a fighter F-15 intended for a gain of domination in an air and having unique battle(dashing) possibilities. The journal “Interavia” has named Su-27 “ as the most capable fighter in the world ”. The beginning of the biography Su-27, machine of the fourth generation, is dramatic. Creating an equivalent F-15, the designer collective led by M. Simonov did not possess all completeness of datas about American F-15. When in the summer of a 1977 the
flight tests of a new plane(airplane) designated N-10 have begun was clarified: the tactical-characteristics of F-15 are higher, than it was supposed. And is significant.
Under the insisting the designers N-10 have sent in a museum of aircraft. The realization of the project of a new plane(airplane) - smaller began, than N-10, in sizes more accomplished on aerodynamics, arrangement, is valid capable to argue with F-15 for domination in an air. Later, by the way, the prototype SU-27 just at F-15 has selected a number of the important world(global) records. Su-27 (for stages N-10) was developed as the first domestic “unstablis” plane(airplane) with an electroremote control system. To pilot the machine to the pilot the electrocommand system with “ by brain centre ”, always by ready rational image helps to correct operations of the person, to correct an own error.
This system, expressing by language of the founders of the machine, is spreaded on volume of a plane(airplane) by the channels and extremely is hardy. Su-27 is excellent armed, far sees by locator. The machine is equipped with drives created in NPO “Saturn” of the name A. Lulka. AL-31F - first in country a two-contour drive of such class appropriate on parameters to maximum world(global) reachings. It(he) of a modular construction, with interchangeablis blocks, that simplifies and makes cheaper repair. The resource(safe life) of a drive is lifted up to resource(safe life) of a plane(airplane). The interest in West calls also two-place training-battle Su-27UB, as on “pair” a system of the weapon and management by him(it) completely is saved. Signifies, the battle(dashing) use of a fighter is possible and in such variant.
Control system of arms: coherent the system of target destination is impulse - Doppler radar, optic-electronic helmet locator.
Formally, the development program of the Su-27SK fighter, a version of the Su-27 aircraft, was launched in 1969, though the conceptual studies and work substantiating its higher performance at Air Force research institutes and in industry date back to a much earlier period. Since then 30 years have elapsed and it would be interesting now to rate the machine from the viewpoint of the present-day standards, analyze the prospects for ideas which originated in the late 1960s and realized in the creation of the baseline aircraft and its version, the Su-27SK.
The worldwide practise of developing air combat complexes favors the correct formulation of the concept of an air complex (AC) as an essential precondition for its "longevity." Thirty years is clear proof that the correct choice was made for the conception of the
Su-27 fighter. The main purpose behind the development was to gain air supremacy. In formulating the operational/tactical concept of the air complex, emphasis was placed on making the best use of its fighter qualities, while limiting the attack potential to unguided weapon systems.
This concept has retained its relevance despite the stress made on the attack potential in the new versions of fourth-generation fighters. In the opinion of military specialists, air complexes must be multirole, that is, they should be effective against ground targets while fully satisfying "fighter requirements." This becomes obvious from analyzing the concepts of such aircraft as F-22A, Rafale and others, which use both guided and unguided weapons for their ground target attacks.
However, the mere availability of the guided weapons, enabling highly accurate selective engagement of ground targets, is far from being sufficient for effective execution of attack missions. To withstand a serious counteraction of hostile ground-based air defense systems, it is necessary to enhance the fighter survivability (i. e. its ability to evade or withstand enemy attacks) by reducing its radar signature, increasing the composition and mass of combat survivability enhancement means, extending the frequency range and increasing the energy potential of the electronic countermeasures (ECM) equipment, assuring the low-altitude flying capability, etc. Moreover, to successfully achieve these and related ends, it would be effectual to have another crewmember aboard the aircraft to operate the search-and-attack systems. The necessity of meeting this condition is confirmed by both foreign and domestic practises (F/A-18E, Su-30MK, etc.). There is also information concerning plans to develop two-seat versions of the Rafale and EF-2000 aircraft. Implementing these measures usually results in degrading the air complex's fighter capacity, reducing its effectiveness in both short- and long-range air combats and virtually changing the fighter concept, turning it into a strike aircraft with an increased fighter potential.
The analysis of employment of aircraft in military conflicts taking place in the world for the last three decades shows that the task of gaining air supremacy has not become obsolete, rather it has grown significantly. Hence the concept of the Su-27 aircraft, whose performance characteristics have been optimized on the basis of the priority solution of this very task, still remains up-to-date. The effectiveness of the solution will depend on how the aircraft performance fits current demands, which, in turn, will depend on the engineering efficiency of the air complex and its systems.
The engineering efficiency is characterized by a number of criteria describing the degree of correspondence of the air complex to the level of combat aircraft development of the period under consideration.
Aerodynamics. Some aircraft experts maintain that perfect aerodynamics of an aircraft are directly linked to the beauty of its outlines. Apart from determining the shape of the airframe delighting laymen and specialists alike, the integral aerodynamic configuration with a lifting fuselage and developed root extensions guarantees a high level of aerodynamics. It is usually evaluated in terms of the maximum aerodynamic quality characterizing the potential of the aerodynamic configuration chosen for the newly developed aircraft and the maximum lift ratio setting the limit for its load-carrying capacity. In these respects the Su-27SK has no rivals in the world among the fourth-generation fighters and is only second to 10 - 15% of advanced fighters currently under development.
The realization of the longitudinal static instability at subsonic speeds, deflection of the leading edges and trailing edge high-lift hardware of the wing adaptively to the flight regime (in angle of attack and Mach number) reduce the trimming losses, increase aerodynamic quality, enhance the load-carrying capacity and decrease the induced drag during evolutions.
Design. The airframe of the Su-27SK fighter is rated at a maximum operational overload of +9g, which is close to the value of the pilot's physiological g-tolerance, and is unlikely to be exceeded in the nearest future. The airframe structure makes extensive use of titanium alloys and strengthened grades of steel. The relative mass of the structure is an indication of the structural cleanness of any aircraft and is equal to about 0.29 for the Su-27SK, which is on a par with the best world standards.
The Su-27SK has been designed to achieve the maximum possible level of combat survivability, that is the capability of an aircraft to proceed with the assigned mission after being hit by the enemy. The two-engine powerplant with independent fuel supply lines for each engine, three-spar wing, redundant aircraft control and hydraulic systems, protection of the pilot's cockpit with equipment units, and explosion-proof design of fuel tanks are just a few items in a long list of measures aimed at solving this problem.
Powerplant. The powerpant comprises two AL-31F double-flow turbojet engines developing a maximum reheat thrust of 12,500 kgf. The engine's specific thrust is 10% higher than that of its American counterpart, the F-100-PW-100. The AL-31F is the world's only series-produced engine for combat aircraft with the active control of the gap between the blades and casing of the turbine; this characteristic markedly increases the efficiency of the latter and fuel efficiency of the engine.
The feature that sets the engine apart is the high level of gas flow stability, which allows it to operate reliably under extreme conditions ranging from irregular air flow at the inlet to the air intake surge and assures safe flight at high angles of attack as well as when the aircraft slips into a spin.
In its design the AL-31F employs many unique engineering innovations determining the potential for increasing the thrust and service life. The realization of these novel ideas will extend its life well into the next two to three decades. An example of these innovations is a vectorable thrust engine.
Control system. The Su-27SK is equipped with an analog-type fly-by-wire system with a quadruple redundancy, assuring control of the longitudinally unstable aircraft. In the last few generations of fighters these have been phased out by digital systems. However, along with the undisputable advantages, the fly-by-wire systems have some disadvantages that prompted the designers to resume employment of analog systems as a backup or combine these to enhance reliability and quality of aircraft control. The Su-27SK aircraft is controlled by an automatic flight control system (AFCS) integrated with the navigation system and command guidance equipment. The AFCS stabilizes the angular position and altitude of the aircraft, levels it off, allows a programmed climb and descent, controls the aircraft in altitude, speed and heading as it is being vectored to air targets, returning to the home airfield, and making the landing approach. The novel concepts and technological solutions involved in the Su-27 enabled it to achieve a high flight performance which today allows it, even without modernizing its major systems, to meet the most stringent requirements placed on modern aircraft.
The integrated configuration with large wing extensions provides, apart from the high aerodynamic efficiency, agreeable conditions for operation of the powerplant at high angles of attack, markedly increases the interior spaces for fuel, which, in turn, makes it possible to achieve the unique flight range without carrying the drop tanks (1,400 km near the ground and 3,900 km at a high altitude in cruising flight conditions). The unique aerodynamic characteristics combined with the optimal choice of such aircraft parameters as the specific wing loading and thrust-to-weight ratio, plus employment of the fly-by-wire system, allow the Su-27SK to outmaneuver its foreign counterparts, including the new generation of European fighters. A stunt like the "Pugachev cobra" could only be reproduced by the American F-16 fighter after significant modifications.
Implementing promising developments in the Su-27SK is the precondition for its "longevity" and expediency of continuous modernization. Among the factors for allowing continuous improvement of the air complex performance characteristics through its modernization is a high level of the structural cleanness, which provides a reserve for installation of more sophisticated equipment and armament. This has been confirmed by experience gained in developing the latest versions of the Su-27 fighter.
Avionics. The avionics of the Su-27SK comprises an airborne radar, optronic fire control system, flight-navigation complex, ECM and communications facilities allowing the aircraft to perform its missions both during the day and at night, in all weathers and in the face of enemy ECM background. Compared to its main foreign counterpart, the F-15C "heavy" tactical fighter, the Su-27SK is on a par with the latter in avionics and surpasses it in composition and capability of the optronic fire control system. The Russian fighter's avionics offers an equal and, in some cases, better performance than similar European new-generation fighters.
The high effectiveness of the Su-27SK is largely due to its advanced weapon control system (WCS) assuring automatic all-aspect detection and tracking of air targets in a free space and against the earth background, engagement of the targets by its air-to-air missiles and gun fire from short and long distances, and destruction of ground targets by its unguided weapons.
The powerful airborne pulse-Doppler radar enables the aircraft to detect and simultaneously track up to ten air targets of the "tactical fighter" type at ranges of up to 120 km. The fighter is also armed with a state-of-the-art optronic fire control system comprising an infrared direction finder with a high-altitude effective range compared to that of the airborne radar, laser range finder, head-up display and helmet-mounted target designator sending virtually instant inputs into the missile homing heads as the pilot turns his head within a wide range of angles. The airborne radar operates in conjunction with the optronic fire control system to exchange the target designation data, which markedly improves the target detection probability and target tracking reliability, especially in enemy ECM environment. The WCS software enables the crew to identify air threats, classify each threat, and select the right weapon to destroy the air target that is the most dangerous in a given tactical situation.
The integrated navigation and communications systems, forming part of the avionics equipment, allow the aircraft to be navigated in all phases of its flight and landing approach in both automatic and director modes and provide radio communications with the ground control stations and other aircraft at distances of up to 1,500 km. The communications equipment is used for exchange of coded information during air combat as well as command guidance from the ground for intercepting air targets.
Armament. To attack air targets, the Su-27SK can carry up to six
R-27E medium-range air-to-air missiles with semi-active radar and infrared homing heads, up to six R-73E short-range combat missiles or various combinations of the same, on its ten hardpoints.
The R-27E missile can attack all types of air targets from short and long distances and in all weathers, from all directions and against the earth background, with the enemy using his ECM and maneuver capabilities. The missile intercepts air targets flying at speeds up to
3,500 km/h and altitudes ranging from 0.02 to 27 km. It is equipped with an inertial radio-updated navigation system and semi-active radar or infrared homing heads. A significant advantage of the Su-27SK armament complex is that it can simultaneously carry the R-27E missiles fitted with different types of homing heads, which enhance the effectiveness of execution of combat missions in the enemy ECM environment.
The R-27E missile is a short-range weapon allowing highly accurate head-on and tail-on attacks against air targets in air combat from all directions. By its effectiveness which derives from the performance characteristics (maximum g-load, target designation angle, angular rate of air target autotracking, minimum launching range for a maneuverable target), the missile outperforms the world's best analogs.
The aircraft also carries aerial bombs of up to 500 kg, including concrete-piercing bombs, clusters, unguided airborne rockets. Such a complement of attack weapons has been accepted largely for gaining air supremacy, and among the several ways to achieve this would be pinning enemy aviation down to the ground (destroying airfield components, dropping mines on them, destroying aircraft and ground installations, disrupting communication and control).
Thus, the avionics and armament of the Su-27SK fighter are presently used as the effective means of accomplishment of its main combat mission - gaining air supermacy through destruction of the enemy aviation both in the air and on the ground.
Operation. The maintainability characteristics of the Su-27SK and its operating performance are crucial for development of and especially promotion of Russian fighters on the combat aircraft world market. According to available evidence, the characteristics of the Su-27SK are on a par with those of foreign fourth-generation tactical fighters. However, in term of the strategy of operation, they are inferior. During their lifetime, the Russian fighters require a considerable amount of scheduled maintenance service and repairs.
Naturally, if a fighter designer does not expect his aircraft to take part in future combat, the additional expenses associated with preventive maintenance and various repairs are simply a waste of money. But if you presume that your aircraft will take part in combat operations, notably large-scale ones, then the availability of a streamlined overhaul facility and well-trained maintenance personnel will not be regarded as a burden incurring additional expenses, but an advantage, since establishing an overhaul facility network usually takes considerable time which may be short during a war.
Effectiveness. Normally,what is meant by the combat effectiveness is the degree of fitness of an aircraft for successfully completing assigned missions. As stated above, the main mission of the Su-27SK is to gain air supremacy.
From the viewpoint of striking distance, the Su-27SK fighter, noted for its unique "load - range" performance, is on a par with the world's best. Interacting with ground and air control stations, the fighter can fly missions involving the interception of air targets to their full operational depth. The long flight range of the aircraft also enables rapid concentration of fighter aviation efforts in the most dangerous directions and its employment where airfields are rare and communications poor.
The conclusive phase of any fighter mission is the air combat, the results of which are used for appraising the effectiveness of the fighter. The equipment and armament of the Su-27SK, meeting the world's best standards or surpassing them, allow the aircraft to boast an appropriate effectiveness in long-range air combat. According to various estimates, the Su-27SK is in no way inferior to its foreign analog, the F-15C. Concerning short-range air combat, the Su-27SK with its unsurpassed agility, unique target designation system and armament, R-73E missiles, not only outperforms all current foreign counterparts, but will be second to none among the promising new-generation fighters.
The overall evaluation of combat effectiveness of the Su-27SK compared to its foreign counterparts, averaged over a great number of combat missions and conditions for their fulfillment, indicates that it outperforms the F-15C tactical fighter in combat potential factor by approx. 10 percent.
From a brief analysis one concludes that, by its concept, engineering perfection and combat effectiveness, the Russian Su-27SK fighter fully meets the requirements placed on the fighters of the early 21st century. The unique flight performance and significant reserves for further modernization of avionics and armament provide the obvious preconditions for operating the aircraft for decades to come.
Thus, a growing interest in the fighter may be anticipated in the countries planning to modernize or expand their aircraft fleet. Thanks to its design features, the Su-27SK can be customized by modernizing the armament systems (adding air-to-surface guided weapons), increasing the flight range through mid-air refueling as well as installing equipment at customer's request. This "flexibility" will make it possible to increase the export potential of the Su-27SK turning it into one of the best selling aircraft in the world.

SU-27 Flanker
SU-27 Flanker
W. (tons):
23- 33,0
Max. military load (kg):
Speed (km/h):
1400/2'35 mach
min. indicated speed:  200
Acceleration time at H=1000 (sec):
from speed 600 to 1100:   14.1
from 1100 to 1300:   9.8
Dimensions (m):
14,7 x 21,9 x 5,9
Service seiling (m):
Range (km):
2 twin shaft DTRD- AL31-F2, 2 x 13'600 kgs
4 AA R-27 (R-27R, R-27T, R-27TE)
6 AA R-73
total: 10
30 mm DP GSh-301
RBK cluster bombs (25, 500 kg)
retarded aerial bombs (100, 250, 500 kg)
unguided aerial missiles (C-8, C-25)
countermeas.: pilot illum.radar warning receiver (bearing data host.radar emissions, chaff and infra red decoy dispensers, active multirole jammer)
- optronic infra-red search and track sensor, laser range finder(40 -100 km range)
- jam-proof coherent pulse Doppler radar, Phazatron N001 Zhuk, with track-while-scan and look-down/shoot-down capability (range: target 3sq.m - 40/100 km; search, detect and track up to 10 targets with automatic threat assesment and prioritization)
fly-by-wire controls
automatic flight controls

Rabu, 19 Januari 2011

About my Handgun : Makarov PM

Kaliber 9x18mm PM; 9x18mm diperbaiki (PMM)
Type: Double action
Panjang keseluruhan 161mm (165mm PMM)
Menurunkan berat 730g (760g PMM)
Panjang laras 93,5 mm
Kapasitas magazine 8 peluru (12 peluru PMM)

Tentara Merah melawan Perang Besar Patriotik 1.941-45 dengan kedua semi-otomatis TT Tokarev pistol dan revolver usang Nagant M1895. Terlepas dari kenyataan bahwa lebih ampuh pistol dirancang tepat sebelum dan selama perang, TT senjata tetap menjadi arus utama. Pengalaman masa perang, yang termasuk dekat (dan kadang-kadang sangat pribadi) keakraban dengan pistol Jerman, menghasilkan perubahan besar dari pemikiran tentang peran dan fitur yang diperlukan pistol militer untuk pasukan Uni Soviet. Faktor lain yang memainkan peran utama dalam pengembangan persyaratan baru bagi militer berikutnya pistol, adalah prospek realistis Perang Dunia Ketiga, dengan bom nuklir besar-besaran dan berskala besar seperti tindakan; sebagai akibatnya, pistol memainkan peran yang sangat kecil peran dalam kedua strategis dan taktis doktrin tentara Uni Soviet. Lebih jauh lagi, Tokarev pistol, meskipun relatif sederhana dan kuat, menunjukkan kekurangan yang signifikan, beberapa di antaranya cukup serius, seperti kurangnya keselamatan positif, sehingga segera setelah perang, GAU (Glavnoye Artillerijskoe Upravlenie - Artileri Jenderal Departemen Staf Umum) mengeluarkan serangkaian persyaratan baru bagi militer dan polisi pistol.
Persyaratan ini meminta kompak, double action pistol dari "PP Walther type". Pistol baru itu harus diserahkan dalam tiga calibres - 7.65x17SR Browning (polisi diajukan bulat), 9x17 Browning, dan 9x18 baru. Yang terakhir ini telah dikembangkan awalnya hanya sebelum perang dan halus setelah perang oleh perancang Syomin. Rupanya, babak ini terinspirasi oleh Ultra 9x18 Jerman, yang dirancang pada pertengahan 1930-an untuk memberikan "daya maksimum yang dapat diterima" di sederhana, berukuran saku blowback pistol. Alasan kunci bagi peningkatan kaliber bila dibandingkan dengan peluru 9mm Barat tidak diketahui (9x18 Soviet yang memiliki diameter peluru 9.2mm, sementara sebagian besar peluru 9mm Barat memiliki diameter peluru 9.02mm; Catatan bahwa penggunaan 9x18 Ultra / Polri amunisi dalam setiap Makarov pistol tidak aman!).
Selain itu, sementara tentara Uni Soviet itu di depan banyak orang lain dalam permintaan double action pistol, itu agak mengalami kemunduran dalam menerapkan sebuah putaran hanya sedikit kuat dalam sebuah senjata yang pada dasarnya adalah saku-jenis pistol. Pada periode yang sama, banyak tentara lainnya, mencari peningkatan daya, mulai mengubah "lemah" 7.65x17 Browning, 9x17 atau 7.65x20 Longue Browning pistol yang lebih kuat 9x19 Luger / Parabellum / NATO senjata. Penjelasan untuk kenyataan ini, bagaimanapun, adalah agak sederhana - sementara sebagian besar negara-negara Barat mengandalkan kekuatan penuh senapan (bolt action atau semi-otomatis) dan sub-senapan mesin sebagai individu utama persenjataan untuk infanteri, konsep Soviet yang baru telah tidak ada tempat untuk sub-senapan mesin, sebagai satu-satunya lengan utama infanteri adalah senapan serbu baru dikembangkan. Kebanyakan pistol Barat diminta untuk api amunisi 9mm NATO hanya memiliki kesamaan dalam amunisi dengan isu sub-standar senapan mesin; Soviet desainer tidak punya persyaratan seperti itu, dan pada akhir tahun empat puluhan 9x18 tampak seolah-olah cukup baik untuk pistol militer.
Percobaan untuk pistol baru dimulai pada tahun 1947. Banyak rancangan diajukan dan diuji, seperti pistol oleh Baryshev, Rakov, Voevodin, Simonov, dan Makarov. Beberapa desain yang diajukan dalam satu calibres yang diinginkan, beberapa, seperti desain Makarov, dalam dua, dan beberapa di ketiga. Pada tahun 1948, sidang mengakibatkan pemilihan pistol Makarov 9x18 sebagai berikut pistol militer untuk angkatan bersenjata Soviet. Namun, dibutuhkan tiga tahun untuk memperbaiki desainnya, sebelum secara resmi dipakai pada tahun 1951 sebagai "9mm Pistolet Makarova" atau PM di singkat.
Dekade berikutnya melihat evolusi bertahap Makarov pistol, dalam melanjutkan usaha-usaha untuk memproduksi pistol baru dengan lebih sedikit menolak dan pada biaya lebih rendah. Kebanyakan upaya berkonsentrasi pada teknologi produksi, dan pada tahun delapan puluhan banyak bagian yang awalnya dibuat dengan mesin dan tangan-pas, menjadi presisi-coran yang diperlukan minimal, jika ada, cocok. Awal tahun enam puluhan juga melihat upaya untuk membuat PM pistol ringan oleh pengenalan aluminium / titanium paduan atau polimer frame. Paduan yang ringan frame berubah menjadi berlebihan mahal, tapi berbingkai pistol polimer, yang dikembangkan di Tula sebagai TKB-023, telah melewati sebagian besar persidangan dengan terbang warna. Meskipun fakta itu, hal itu ditolak oleh militer dengan alasan tidak diketahui stabilitas polimer bingkai selama jangka panjang (10-20 tahun) penyimpanan dan penggunaan.
Selama dekade terakhir abad ke-20 ada banyak upaya o memperbaiki beberapa kekurangan dari AM, yang paling spesifik yang relatif rendah daya hentinya dan mematikan, dan rendahnya kapasitas majalah. Pertama, sebuah versi perbaikan cartridge, dengan peluru yang lebih ringan dan lebih panas bubuk dikenakan biaya, akan dikembangkan sebagai PMM 9x18. Cartridge ini dikembangkan moncong kecepatan dari 430 meter per detik dibandingkan dengan 315 meter per detik 9x18mm asli amunisi. Kapasitas besar versi AM ini dikembangkan bersama dengan amunisi baru, yang termasuk bingkai pegangan sedikit mendesain ulang untuk mengakomodasi lebih tebal majalah. Grip panel juga ditingkatkan. Yang PMM ditawari untuk kedua militer dan penegakan hukum pembeli, dan akhirnya setidaknya sedikit yang diperintahkan oleh kepolisian Rusia, meskipun dalam standar 9x18 chambering. PMM 9x18 amunisi yang tidak dikeluarkan pada skala yang signifikan akibat bahaya memuat amunisi baru ke dalam senjata tua, yang dapat mengakibatkan kerusakan pada tua dan usang senjata. Sebaliknya, Tentara Rusia akhirnya pergi untuk baru yang lebih menjanjikan pistol, yang dikembangkan pada saat yang sama milik negara Izhevsk Mechanical Plant, yang Yarygin PYa.

The Makarov PM adalah suara yang sederhana dan desain, yang dianggap sebagai salah satu yang terbaik-pembelaan diri compact pistol dari waktu. Meskipun tidak sangat akurat dan mematikan di luar kisaran 15-20 meter, masih yang tangguh dan dapat diandalkan senjata bela diri.

Beberapa versi dari PM yang dikembangkan untuk pasar ekspor dan menggunakan keamanan dalam negeri, termasuk IZh-70 dan pistol IZh-71 di 9x17mm Browning Pendek (.380 ACP), tersedia dalam standar dan variasi kapasitas yang tinggi, serta Baikal-442, sebuah komersial PM di 9x18mm, juga tersedia dalam standar dan kapasitas tinggi versi, dengan tetap atau disesuaikan pemandangan.

The Makarov PM adalah blowback dioperasikan, double action pistol dari semua-konstruksi baja. Manual keselamatan terletak di sisi kiri slide, dan, ketika terlibat, aman membawa palu turun dari posisi terkokang, dan kemudian mengunci palu, layu dan geser. Palu eksternal dapat mengokang secara manual untuk tembakan pertama yang akurat dalam tindakan Single modus, atau dapat mengokang secara otomatis oleh lebih lama dan lebih berat memicu aksi menarik di Double modus. All-baja memegang majalah 8 putaran (12 putaran untuk PMM pistol), dan ketika gambar terakhir ditembakkan, geser tetap dalam posisi terbuka, berkat slide berhenti. Untuk melepaskan diri slide berhenti, orang harus menarik tuas di sisi kiri dari frame bawah. Majalah menangkap terletak di bagian bawah cengkeraman, tetapi beberapa versi ekspor Baikal-442 tersedia dengan rilis majalah tombol pada dasar triggerguard. PM dilengkapi dengan pemandangan terbuka tetap sebagai standar, klik-dapat disesuaikan dengan pemandangan terbuka tersedia sebagai pilihan pada model ekspor.

Bagaimana membongkar / lapangan-strip Makarov PM pistol: 1) menghapus majalah dengan menekan majalah rilis di dasar pegangan dan menarik majalah itu; 2) periksa apakah ruangan ini kosong; 3) menarik pelatuk-penjaga ke bawah , lalu mengayunkannya ke satu sisi untuk mengunci pada posisi terbuka; 4) tarik slide sepanjang perjalanan kembali, kemudian mengangkat bagian belakang slide ke atas, dan dari frame rel; 5) hati-hati kemudahan slide maju dan menonaktifkan laras; 6) menghapus kembali muncul dari laras.
Berkumpul kembali dalam urutan terbalik.

Mikhail Kalashnikov bapak Senapan Serbu

Mikhail Timofeevich Kalashnikov (bahasa Rusia: Михаи́л Тимофе́евич Кала́шников, Mihail Timofeevič Kalašnikov) (lahir di Kuriya, Altai Krai, USSR, 10 November 1919; umur 89 tahun) adalah perancang senjata Rusia yang ternama. Ia anak bungsu dari 17 bersaudara. Sejak kecil, keinginan besarnya untuk belajar sudah mulai tampak. Demikian pula kreativitasnya. Ia juga terhitung anak yang senang membuat sesuatu dengan tangannya sendiri.
Walaupun terhitung pandai, Kalashnikov tidak sempat menyelesaikan sekolahnya sampai ayahnya wafat. Ia terpaksa meninggalkan bangku Sekolah Menengah Atas di tengah jalan karena ibunya tidak mampu membiayai sekolahnya. Keadaanpun memaksa dia ikut bekerja di sebuah bengkel kereta api Turkestan-Siberia. Disinilah dia mempelajari teknik mekanik lalu menjadi sekertaris teknisi.

Berkarir dalam dinas militer Soviet
Pada tahun 1938 dia masuk wajib militer Tentara Merah dan menjadi komandan tank pada awal Perang Patriotik Besar dan bertugas di komando daerah khusus di Kiev Ukraina. Sejak itu ia menekuni bidang-bidang permesinan dan terus mendalami mekanisme persenjataan diantaranya adalah ahli mekanik tank. Pendidikan inilah yang menjadi modal dasarnya menciptakan beragam perlengkapan perang. Ia merancang indikator inersi untuk mencatat jumlah tembakan dari meriam tank. Lalu ia juga membuat perangkat untuk melihat efektivitas tembakan dari jendela tank. Begitu pula indikator untuk melihat kinerja mesin tank.
Kreativitas Kalashnikov dan perangkat buatannya ternyata menarik perhatian panglima komando daerah yang dijabat Jendral Georgy Zhukov. Zhukov lalu memberi hadiah sebuah jam tangan dan mengirim Kalashnikov ke Leningrad-kini St. Petersburg. Disana Kalashnikov diberi kesempatan untuk mengembangkan perangkat buatannya untuk diproduksi secara massal. Selain itu juga diangkat sebagai penasihat teknik untuk bidang militer, terutama untuk produk meter bahan bakar dan roda rantai kendaraan tempur.
Pada musim gugur 1941, ketika pertempuran melawan Jerman, ia diangkat menjadi komandan pasukan tank pada “Marshal Katukov’s First Tank Army” yang menggunakan tank T-34, dengan pangkat sersan senior.
Pada bulan Oktober 1941, Kalashnikov terluka parah pada pertempuran di Bryansk, kota yang berjarak sekitar 379 km di barat daya kota Moskow, dan dikirim pulang dari garis depan serta dirawat dirumah sakit. Disini ia banyak berbincang-bincang dengan sesama pasien tentara yang dirawat tentang persenjataan, diantaranya tentang keluhan perihal kurangnya senapan mesin (otomatis) pada pasukan Soviet dibandingkan dengan milik pasukan Jerman.Atas diskusi dan keluhan dari rekan-rekan sejawatnya, Kalashnikov mulai memikirkan rancangan senapannya di rumah sakit bagi Tentara Merah. Ia mulai banyak membaca di perpustakaan rumah sakit tentang teknik senapan. Pegawai rumah sakit yang bernama Marusya meminjamkan buku dasar-dasar persenjataan yang ditulis V.G. Federov yang berjudul “Evoluyutsia Strelkovogo Oruzhiya” yang diterbitkan pada tahun 1939.
Kalashnikov kemudian bergabung dengan lokakarya Institut Penerbangan Moskwa. Ketika bekerja di situ, Kalashnikov merancang beberapa inovasi untuk tank, antara lain sebuah alat penghitung jumlah tembakan. Setelah beberapa tahun, ia diangkat menjadi kepala insinyur, dan diberikan lebih banyak sumber daya.

Merancang Senapan AK-47
Pada tahun 1942, tentara Merah mendirikan proyek untuk menciptakan senapan mesin yang ringan dan mudah dioperasikan. Dalam proyek ini terdapat tenaga perancang ternama yakni G.S. Shpagin, V.A. Degtyarev dan Kalashnikov serta Aleksei Ivanovich Sudayev. Namun pada pertandingan perancangan senapan mesin/senapan otomatis ini ternyata dimenangkan Aleksei Ivanovich Sudayev dengan model PPS-43.
Meski kalah, tetapi rancangan Kalashnikov diperhatikan oleh Jendral Anatoly Arkadaevich Blagonravov, pemegang kunci dalam program persenjataan Uni Soviet dan komisaris pada “Artilleriskoi Akademi RKKA im Dzerzhinskogo”.
Pada tahun 1947, dia merancang AK-47. Dan berkat keuletannya pada tahun 1948, Kolodel Teknik Vladimir Sergeyevich, memberi selamat kepada Kalashnikov karena rancangannya berupa “Avtomat Kalashnikova” diterima menjadi senapan standar, dan pada tahun 1949, senapan serbu AK-47 (Avtomat Kalashnikova Obrazetsa) berkaliber 7,62 mm ini mulai secara luas dipakai oleh Tentara Merah. Senjata ini diproduksi secara massal antara 1948-1951, model berikutnya antara 1952-1954, lalu diterbitkan lagi model ketiga yang tetap dinamai AK-47 dan pada tahun 1959 diperkenalkan model AKM.
Senapan ini begitu populer di dunia karena mudah dioperasikan di berbagai medan tempur. Bahkan popularitas senapan rancangannya menjadi simbol-simbol perjuangan kaum antikemapanan, gerilyawan hingga bendera nasional seperti halnya bendera negara Mozambik, bendera Hizbullah, hingga korps Garda Revolusioner Islam Iran, meski Iran lebih banyak mengadopsi senapan buatan barat seperti Gewehr G-3. Kalashnikov sendiri mengatakan ketika membandingkan senapannya dengan senapan M-16 dengan menyebutkan bahwa senapannya memang lebih berat dibandingkan M-16 namun M-16 dianggapnya terlalu rumit sehingga sering merepotkan ketika macet digunakan,terutama M-16 versi awal (M-16A1). Karena begitu populernya sehingga ada ungkapan bahwa senapan ini sangat akrab dari kalangan kawanan bandit hingga anggota pasukan elit negara. Bahkan dikalangan pemuda pada suku-suku di Afrika, ada sebuah lagu yang sangat populer dinyanyikan pemuda dengan bahasa setempat yang bisa diartikan seperti ini, “Tanpa uang, anda bukanlah apa-apa, tanpa sebuah Kalash….” (yang dimaksud adalah senapan Kalashnikov).

Penghargaan atas jasa-jasanya
Berkat jasa-jasanya tersebut, Kalashnikov dianugerahi pangkat kehormatan Mayor Jenderal pada tahun 1949 yang kemudian dinaikkan menjadi Letnan Jenderal lima tahun kemudian. Bintang penghargaan sebagai pahlawan Uni Soviet juga diperoleh juga gelar doktor kehormatan dibidang teknik.
Kalashnikov menghabiskan masa tuanya di flat sederhana di kota Izhevsk di barat Pegunungan Ural yang juga dikenal sebagai industri kendaraan bermotor. Dikota inilah dia masih mengabdikan dirinya berkarya di pabrik senjata Izmash, yang dibangun pada 1807.
Ketika ditanya oleh wartawan mengenai senapan rancangannya yang menjadi mesin pembunuh terkenal didalam konflik diberbagai belahan dunia sejak tahun 1947, dia berkata :
“Aku tetap bisa tidur nyenyak. Aku merancang senapan ini untuk membela diri, bukan untuk membunuh. Kalau banyak yang terbunuh dengan senapan ini, itu kesalahan para politisi yang tak mampu mencapai kesepakatan damai dan lebih memilih jalan kekerasan untuk memecahkan masalah mereka”.
Selanjutnya dia berkata :
“Pada saat merancang, jelas sekali aku membuatnya dalam suasana Perang Dunia II, ketika kita harus menghadapi musuh yang paling kuat, yakni fasis Jerman. Aku merancang senapan ini, hingga kita bisa mempertahankan batas-batas negara kita. Kalau pada waktu itu tidak adanya perang, mungkin sekali aku menjadi perancang mesin pertanian”
Namun dibalik kesuksesan rancangannya itu, senapan Kalashnikov mudah ditiru, baik dari negara-negara bekas sekutu Uni Soviet, negara-negara bekas Pakta Warsawa yang pada saat itu memang diberikan rancangan senapan Kalashnikov oleh Uni Soviet untuk memenuhi kebutuhan persenjataan Pakta Warsawa, maupun Kalashnikov ilegal yang dibuat bahkan oleh industri sekelas “home industry” di daerah daerah konflik seperti dikawasan perbatasan Afghanistan-Pakistan meski mutunya dibawah kualitas senapan Kalashnikov yang asli, seperti lebih berat dari berat aslinya. Hal ini juga disesalkan oleh penciptanya, Kalashnikov yang lebih menyesalkan masalah penggandaan senapan tiruan itu untuk digunakan para kriminal dan pemberontak gerilyawan di berbagai negeri. Namun dia tidak menyesalkan telah menyerahkan hak ciptanya ke negara.


Introduce of The Partisan

Nama : The Partisan

Didirikan : 4 Juni 2008

The Partisan adalah sebuah Komunitas di dunia maya, di Prakarsai oleh sekelompok anak-anak kurang Kerjaan yang menggemari dunia Kemiliteran awalnya di sebuah web bernama Military-Discussion,
namun seiring berjalannya waktu pengguna di web Military Discussion minus yang berasal dari Indonesia, akhirnya setelah kita berhasil menemukan pengguna dari Indonesia kita berpikir lagi untuk memberi nama kelompok yang Berasal dari Indonesia, tapi disisi lain sang pemimpin punya ide setelah menonton Sebuah Film yang berjudul Defiance (2008) dan Mercenary of Justice (2008) baru kepikiran kalau kita menamainya The Partisan

Questions and Answers :

Kenapa namanya The Partisan ?

Well, Dalam kamus Bahasa Inggris Partisan itu artinya Gerilyawan, kenapa begitu? bukannya kita bergerilya kek pejuang Indonesia jaman Belanda, tapi kita Bergerilya sebagai kaum Minoritas